Flatness Problem

The unexpected result that the Universe is not expanding so slowly that it will clearly collapse back on itself in a Big Crunch, nor expanding so quickly that it will clearly keep expanding forever. Instead, measurements show that the Universe is treading a fine line between the two — the Universe is referred to as "flat". Astrophysicists would not expect this to be the case unless there were some cause for the Universe to tread such a fine line. Finding this cause is the "flatness problem".

Four Areas of Science


There are more things in heaven and earth...
than are dreamt of in your philosophy.

Hamlet (I, v, 166–167)

Featured Video

About SXS

The SXS project is a collaborative research effort involving multiple institutions. Our goal is the simulation of black holes and other extreme spacetimes to gain a better understanding of Relativity, and the physics of exotic objects in the distant cosmos.

The SXS project is supported by Canada Research Chairs, CFI, CIfAR, Compute Canada, Max Planck Society, NASA, NSERC, the NSF, Ontario MEDI, the Sherman Fairchild Foundation, and XSEDE.

Our Latest Tweet

RT @KeefeMitman: Nearly 50 years ago, my advisor, Saul Teukolsky, showed how a perturbed black hole rings down to a state of equilibrium. T…

SXS Project